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【世界歷史】張士偉:美國國務院與軍方在日元匯率問題上的博弈(1945-1949)

作者:   來源:歷史學院    發布日期:2019-03-05

內容提要:二戰后初期,由于與日本經濟的恢復存在密切聯系,日元匯率受到美國的重視。出于占領需要,美國國務院將日元匯率分為軍用匯率與商業匯率,且初期僅設立了臨時軍用匯率,商業領域暫由盟軍最高司令官總司令部施行多重匯率。圍繞軍用匯率的調整與商業匯率的設定,美國國務院與軍方進行了激烈的博弈,并派遣特別使團赴日調研,這間接促成軍方暫時掌握了在日元匯率問題上的主動權。美國國務院關注冷戰背景下的美國遠東戰略調整,利用日元匯率推動占領目標的轉變,而盟總僅從占領及改造日本的角度考慮匯率問題,視野局限于日本和遠東地區的改造,這是造成國務院與軍方在日元匯率問題上發生沖突的根本原因。最終,美國國務院得到了杜魯門總統的支持,在日元匯率決策中勝過陸軍部和盟總,確定日元兌美元匯率為360∶1,同時終止軍用匯率及多重匯率,軍方給予配合。1949年4月單一日元匯率的實施,為日本打下了對外貿易和經濟復興的基礎。


關鍵詞:美日關系 日元匯率 軍用匯率 商業匯率 遠東戰略


該文發表于《世界歷史》2019年第1期,作者:張士偉。

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