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【世界宗教研究】呂博:本命與降誕:唐代道教“投龍簡”再讀

作者:   來源:歷史學院    發布日期:2019-05-08

內容提要:武則天嵩山投龍金簡”與“唐玄宗南岳投龍銅簡”的出現,使得道教投龍儀式的研究,有了可以憑據的實物材料。對比二投龍簡簡文,可以發現:“唐玄宗南岳投龍銅簡”刻意要標明君主的“本命年”(生年)和“降誕日”(生日)。此點恰符合P2354號寫本《大唐開元立成投龍章醮威儀法則》的規定。生日、生年作為君主身上的附屬因素,在以往的時代并不重要。但是,在開天之際的歷史進程中,君主的生年、生日所引起的國家祭祀乃至社會風俗的變動,引人注目。不僅道教投龍簡需書名君主本命、降誕日,甚至“壽星祭祀升祠”“華山封禪”“千秋節成立”也都與本命、降誕密切相關。宗教的組織形式與儀式體驗,是這些禮儀變動的靈感來源。這些儀式使得帝王身上的所有因素,包括相貌、尊號、出生年月日、世系等,都像宗教偶像一般,帶有“圣神化”的特征。通過這些細微的考察,似乎可以看到在七八世紀時期,“皇帝—臣民”的帝國秩序構造,不斷地吸收“宗教偶像—信眾”的支配方法。這也是研究七八世紀前后皇權強化不得不重視的問題。


關鍵詞:投龍簡 降誕 本命 大唐開元立成投龍章醮威儀法則


該文發表于《世界宗教研究》2019年第2期,作者:呂博。



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