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【歷史研究】杜華:1835年廢奴郵件運動與內戰前美國奴隸制政治的興起

作者:   來源:    發布日期:2019-06-21

摘 要:1835年夏,美國廢奴協會發起郵件運動,將大量宣傳廢奴思想的出版物郵寄到南部,引發南部蓄奴州反廢奴運動浪潮。南部州的激烈反應,使奴隸制問題迅速發展成為全國性公共議題。與此同時,南部州要求北部州和聯邦政府制定法律,禁止廢奴主義者繼續發表“煽動性”言論,從而開啟了一場關于言論自由和出版自由的全國性政治辯論,最終促使聯邦國會出現修改郵政法之爭。郵件運動打破了1819年密蘇里危機以來美國奴隸制政治的表面沉寂狀態,讓奴隸制重回公共辯論的中心,并使道德和權利層面的反奴隸制話語出現在北部州的主流政治之中,進而推動了奴隸制問題的政治化。從長遠來看,郵件運動還刺激南部以更為激烈的態度捍衛奴隸制,促進了北部州廢奴運動和反南部觀念的發展,使奴隸制問題不可避免地走向政治化和全國化,最終導致密蘇里妥協的破裂和奴隸制政治的興起.

關鍵詞:廢奴運動 郵件運動 公眾集會 奴隸制 南北戰爭


該文發表于《歷史研究》2019年第2期,作者:杜華。

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